Tactical Options Framework
Perceived cumulative assessment
Your subjective assessment and continuous reassessment of an incident, using the TENR model,
based on information known about the situation and the subject’s behaviour. The PCA may
escalate and/or de-escalate more than once during an incident.
There are five categories in the PCA, which are represented in the TOF – cooperative, passive
resistance, active resistance, assaultive, GBH or death.
Engage, disengage or delay?
Your decision to escalate or de-escalate your response, and your choice of tactical option(s),
must be continuously reassessed, using the TENR model, so you choose the most reasonable
option, given all the circumstances known at the time.
Effective communication between police is as critical as effective tactical communication with
the subject(s). Constant assessment, planning and communication between police should occur
throughout a use of force incident.
S S A E
Presence and tactical communication
Tactical communication is Police’s preferred option for resolving incidents. Use tactical
communication throughout an incident, alone or in conjunction with any other tactical option used.
Tactical options and degrees of force
SESS PLAN CO
» officer presence and tactical communication
» mechanical restraints eg handcuffing
» empty hand techniques eg physical restraints and strikes
» OC spray
» baton – Taser - dogs – weapon(s) of opportunity
» firearms and other force with serious implications
Prepare, show and use force
” force means carriage of a tactical option.
” force means presenting a tactical option at a subject.
” force means the application of force on a subject.
Reporting use of force
The Use of Force chapter of the Police Manual outlines which “shows” and “uses” of force you
are required to report. Reporting force facilitates evidence-based decision-making to improve
employee and public safety.
The subjects intent, capability or opportunity along with the physical environment
The legal authority to use force is derived from the law, not the TOF. If you use force that is not
authorised by law, or is excessive, the fact that you relied on the TOF will not justify or legitimise
Awareness of safety, security or public trust and confidence issues
the use of that force.
Assessment of the need to intervene (act) now, later, or not at all
includes force that is necessary
, given all the
circumstances known at the time
Proportionate, timely, reasonable, and lawful Police actions using tactics
and tactical options
requires assessment and constant reassessment, planning and communication to be successful