Budget Initiative Summary Template
This template seeks a high-level summary of the Budget 2016 significant initiatives. Agencies are
required to complete the blue fields – your Vote Analyst will complete their assessment in the grey
fields. Please also refer to the Guidance document available on CFISnet, which provides detail on
supporting information requirements for your initiatives. This supporting information must be provided
to your Vote Analyst.
Minister for Land Information
Open Government Information and Data Programme
This initiative will continue and expand the Open Government Information and Data
Programme. This will enable active support for agencies opening up data, driven by strong
stakeholder engagement. The Programme will drive this change through a series of
initiatives with a track record of success at increasing the value from open data
[Must match CFISnet entry, see page 12 of the Guidance]
Funding Sought ($m)
[Support/Do not support/Partial support/Defer]
[Please provide a short explanation of your recommended funding option]
Degree of government
[Pre commitment/manifesto commitment/discretionary]
Please list the supporting documents
provided to your Vote Analyst.
Cost Benefit Analysis
New Zealand Open Government Information and Data: 2015
Has Cabinet previously considered this
SEC-15-MIN0033 initiative? Please provide a Cabinet
reference and any supporting material.
Vote Analyst Comment
[Please provide a comment on the quality of the supporting information provided. Have the costs and benefits of this
proposal been adequately assessed? Has your agency met the Better Business Case or Regulatory Impact Analysis
requirements where relevant? Do you have enough information to provide your assessment? If not, where possible, provide
the agency’s reason for not providing this information.] Strategic Alignment
How does this initiative fit with your
In August 2011, Cabinet issued a Declaration on Open and Transparent
agency’s strategic intentions and align
Government, committing the Government to actively release high value public
with the Government’s priorities?
data. The Declaration states that “Building on New Zealand’s democratic
tradition, the [New Zealand] government commits to actively releasing high
value public data.” It requires core Government agencies to release all high
value, non-personal, non-restricted data in usable formats to align with the
New Zealand Data and Information Management Principles. The Open
Government Information and Data Programme is a key enabler for agencies
to meet these responsibilities.
Investment in data and information is key to progressing the 2015
Government ICT Strategy’s goal to transform public services. Data and
information not only provide insights for decision making – they are also
essential for providing linked, customer-centric services and maximising the
impact of investment.
The aims of the Open Government Information and Data Programme directly
align with this Government’s revised 2015 ICT Strategy focus area: Open
data and sharing by default supported by privacy and security settings. The
Programme provides support for agencies to do this by assisting in opening
data and increasing agency capability to share by default.
The work of the Open Government Information and Data Programme also
aligns with the Data Investment Framework. It contributes to focus area 4: Easy to find and safe access to open and protected data,
focus area 5: Environment to actively support data sharing
and focus area 6: Leadership
coordination and support
. The work will help to solve many of the critical
system gaps relating to open data, identified as part of the Data Investment
Data is not designed to meet system wide customer needs
Data is not managed and maintained to enable sharing and reuse
Insufficient information is shared to use data safely and
Existing data is hard to find and capacity to respond to requests is
Analytics and insights are not turned into action for the benefit of
Lack of leadership and capability to take action and exploit the value
Common understanding of the authorising environment and social
licence is limited
There is no Government-wide prioritisation based on customer
The impetus to share and use data to drive service delivery and innovation is
recurrent across agency transformation programmes and Government
priorities, including Better Public Services and the Business Growth Agenda.
What is intended to be achieved, for
Investment will enable the Open Government Information and Data
Programme to provide a suite of tools and more direct support to agencies to
increase the pace of data release to Government and other potential users.
The Programme’s objectives include:
Understanding user demand and data user needs
Prioritising investment in opening data according to user demand
Improving capability to collect, manage and release data
Making it easier to find data and improving responses to requests.
The Programme will contribute to new and better products and services being
delivered by Government and private providers. This will enhance consumer
and producer surpluses.
How does this initiative relate to current
The Open Government Information and Data Programme has focussed on the activity(s) undertaken by your agency
fundamentals of data release and supported New Zealand Open Access and
and/or by others across the State
Licensing (NZGOAL). The Programme was resourced to raise awareness
about the value of releasing Government information and data and provide ad
hoc advice to agencies. Work included:
Surveys of agencies to investigate what datasets had been released
Getting agencies to support the Declaration on Open and
Clarifying and communicating the principles regarding the release of
Government information and data
Developing a framework to guide Government agencies in applying
Creative Commons licences (to give permission to reuse public
Establishing a data champions network – every central Government
agency and most local Government authorities now have appointed
a data champion to support the cultural shift within their
Publishing case studies to illustrate the value of open data
Establishing key relationships in the international open data network
and with data users in the private sector
Holding key events, such as the Open Data Showcase at
Parliament, to highlight the kinds of innovative technologies and
solutions that can be developed when Government information and
data is accessible.
These activities established the foundations for progressing the
transformational change that open by design principles require. However,
they are not sufficient to create the step change necessary to accelerate the
Programme further and realise increase benefits.
Funding for the Programme ended on 30 June 2016. The Programme is
being maintained through funding from Land Information New Zealand’s
(LINZ) baseline for the initial part of 2016/17. This has enabled further
planning for an accelerated approach and the maintenance of awareness
work and relationships. However, this will not be sufficient to deliver on
Ministers’ expectations and progress will be limited until further funding is
Please list the agencies or non-
The only consultation on this specific bid has been with the Information Group
government organisations that you
and Statistics New Zealand.
have consulted in the process of
However, we have consulted with several stakeholders on the shift in
developing this initiative.
Programme direction and some of the specific initiatives this bid would make
possible. Those groups include:
Statistics New Zealand
Ministry for Primary Industries
Department of Internal Affairs
Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment
Vote Analyst Comment
[Please rate this initiative’s alignment with Government priorities on a scale from 0-5
. Please also provide a short comment
on the answers provided by your agency – does this initiative align with the strategic intentions of the agency as outlined in
their Four-year Plan? Is the strategic intent of this initiative clear? Has the agency clearly outlined who this initiative will
target and what it is intended to achieve? Has your agency worked with other agencies where relevant in developing this
initiative? Do they have a clear understanding of how this initiative will fit in with existing activity across the State Sector?] Impact Analysis
Provide a summary of the costs and
benefits of this proposal.
The direct fiscal cost of the Open Government Information and Data
Programme is $7,217,000 over four years (outlined in more detail in the
summary table above). The funding is being sought from the Data and
Analytics Contingency provided for in Budget 16. The contingency provides
funding for a maximum of four years for any initiative. Officials believe this
limited period is appropriate. Towards the end of the four years, the
Programme should be reviewed to see whether its continuation is necessary,
and if so, on what scale. An objective of the Programme is to achieve
systems momentum that automatically promotes the open release of
There may also be minor costs across Government agencies, reflected in
slightly lower surpluses to Government at the end of each financial year, or
some opportunity cost from reduced activities elsewhere.
There are minor but easily manageable risks in the form of opportunistic
pressure from stakeholders using data inappropriately, or legal risk from the
use of data leading to loss.
The expected benefits from the Open Government Information and Data
Programme are significant, but difficult to quantify.
The Programme contributes to positive outcomes by improving Government
open data performance. This will be demonstrated by an increased rate of
open datasets meeting specified quality standards. New Zealand experience
suggests the Open Government Information and Data Programme has
contributed to rates of release that are at least twice as high as what would
have otherwise occurred. This will be further built upon.
Expected benefits include:-
Better public sector performance by:
Improved system capability
: Improving the quality of information
available to public sector decision makers and therefore the quality
of operational and policy decisions. This “supply” helps meet
increasing demand for joined up evidence based policy making and
More effective accountability and better performance
Increasing the information available to the public and stakeholder
groups by which to judge the performance of Government agencies
and programmes, thereby encouraging better performance going
forward. Better performance data also aids control agencies and
Ministers in holding Government agencies to account. An important
foundation of good democracy is good information.
The availability of a specialised central resource for
agencies to draw upon will in some areas reduce the cost of
opening up their data. Furthermore, proactively making data
available may reduce the frequency and cost of responding to
Official Information Act requests, and data sharing between
agencies (an open by design approach will reduce future costs in
Better private sector performance by:
Facilitating the development and evolution of new products
This occurs where those products and services are
reliant on data held by Government agencies. In some cases this
will lead to a contestable market for products and services
previously provided by Government alone. This can lead to more
efficient products and services meeting the needs of a wider range
Improving strategic and operational decision making:
more and better quality data. Also, it will make more data available
for research, thereby improving the rigour and validity of that
research, and in turn the judgements and decisions based upon it.
Ultimately, private sector benefits will accrue to New Zealand businesses and
workers through increased profits and wages, and to consumers/clients
through the availability of a wider variety and better value products and
services. The benefits will be apparent by an increase in producer and
consumer surpluses. These benefits accrue from both private and public
sector providers and consumers.
To achieve the benefits listed above, there needs to be improved Government
open data performance. This will be demonstrated by an increased rate of
open datasets that meet specified standards of quality. New Zealand
experience suggests the Open Government Information and Data Programme
has contributed to rates of release that are at least twice as high as what
would have otherwise occurred.
Progress can be further demonstrated by the
opening up of priority datasets. Priority datasets will be chosen through
further engagement with potential users, including by surveys, roundtables
involving potential users and assessment of information requests,
complemented by overseas experience on where value has been realised.
Size of benefits
Ex ante, it is difficult to anticipate the size of benefits from the Open
Government Information and Data Programme because we do not yet know:
The precise data that will be released by the Open Government
Information and Data Programme
The uses to which Government data will be applied
Its ultimate contribution to improved performance relative to other
Therefore, it is very difficult to provide a realistic estimate of the size impact
from the Open Government Information and Data Programme. Nevertheless,
there is reason to believe the benefits will be large. International literature
shows a number of attempts to quantify the potential benefits from opening
Estimates on the benefits to be created by opening up Government
data in other jurisdictions’ data range from 0.4%-1.5% of GDP
A 2013 study by McKinsey estimated the total potential economic
benefits (producer and consumer surplus) accruing in the United
States from all open data (not only Government) to be US$ 3 trillion
A European Commission report on pubic open data estimated that
in 2016 the number of jobs directly tied to open data was 75,000
and that this would increase to 100,000 by 2020. The size of the
market relying on open data is expected to increase by 36.9% to
EUR 75.7 billion. It also estimated the public sector cost savings
from open data to be EUR 1.7 bil ion by 2020
Recent case studies in the United Kingdom have identified benefit
to cost ratios of up to 5-10:1.1
A 2014 report by the World Bank identified four companies worth
US$1 billion or more driven by open data that did not exist ten
While these results are not directly transferrable to New Zealand, they do
provide an indication of the general magnitude of benefits from successfully
opening Government data. As these benefits are largely delivered once data
has been released and reused, New Zealand benefits will be demonstrated
primarily through case studies.
What alternative options did you
The following options have been selected for further analysis:
consider? Why did you choose your
Option one: Status quo
– The current Programme will cease, with remaining
funds being used to complete current guidance, advice and tools being
worked on, and meet the costs of terminating the Programme.
Option two: Medium
– The Programme will work with a small number of
agencies to release data, conduct stocktakes and provide technical advice.
These agencies will be those whose data release will provide economic
benefit, who have the capability and capacity to engage and where there are
fewer privacy issues. Online tools will also be provided for all agencies to use
to open data.
The Programme will also work more closely with data users and create a
strengthened mandate and monitoring.
Option three: Maximum
– Under this option there would be more intensive
support services provided to more agencies, and more engagement with
potential data users. Funds would be set aside to help agencies to meet the
costs of opening their data.
The critical determinant for deciding between the options is the expected net
benefit of each option. To aid in making this judgement, the following criteria
Will the option drive change?
Will the option address key barriers?
Will the option fit with other strategies, programmes and projects
(i.e. not duplicate other work or programmes)?
Will the option provide value for money?
1 Open Data Challenge Series at opendatabarometer.org.
Can the option be delivered?
The costs, benefits and risks of the alternative options are discussed first,
followed by a discussion of the preferred option.
Option 1 is the status quo. Under this option funding for the Open
Government Information and Data Programme would cease in 2016/17 ($0
funding over four years). This would see centralised efforts to support
agencies release open data cease. This would slow the number of
Government datasets becoming available for use by Government and non-
Government users. This would be likely to include datasets deemed of high
value to users. Among other things, the competitive market for innovation
would produce new products for users in other countries before New Zealand,
to the benefit of their customers. In some cases, business activity might
relocate from New Zealand to those countries. Ongoing improvements in
public and private sector performance would track at a lower rate, and New
Zealand’s comparative advantage over other countries would diminish as the
return from those countries’ relatively greater efforts accrued.
Ministers’ expectations for an accelerated Open Government Information and
Data Programme would not be met, and key gaps identified by the Data
Investment Framework will not be targeted by the Programme.
Option 3 is the most ambitious option. It would cost $14 million over four
years. Benefits are likely to be realised more quickly than under option 1 (and
option 2 – the preferred option), but this needs to be considered against the
higher risks and costs. In particular, working closely with key datasets and
motivated and capable stakeholders (option 2) will see valuable learnings with
which to support a more efficient roll-out of the Open Government Information
and Data Programme to more problematic datasets and issues. Also, the
accompanying monitoring and policy development programme of option 2
should see timely and appropriate changes to policy settings to better support
a considered evolution of the Programme, in preference to the big bang
approach of option 3. Finally, option 3 presents the risk that it will violate the
Government intervention principle that Governments “should intervene only to
the point needed to achieve its policy objective, and no more.” Under a worst
case scenario, a poorly implemented option 3 could undermine the credibility
of the Programme and its objectives.
Option 2 is the preferred option. The fiscal cost of the Programme is $7.2
million over four years. It would realise significant and timely gain for New
Zealand compared to option 1, and without the material risk to the efficient
implementation of the Programme that would come with a more aggressive
approach (option 3). Officials believe option 2, compared to the other options:
Provides better value for money
Addresses the key barriers and risks to the Open Government
Information and Data Programme in a cost effective manner
Better aligns and realises synergies with the other whole-of-
Government information work streams, in particular with the work of
Department of Internal Affairs (data.govt.nz) and Statistics New
Vote Analyst Comment
[Please rate this initiative on a scale from 0-5
reflecting the benefits relative to the costs. Please explain your rating and
provide a short comment on the quality of the cost-benefit analysis and the reliability of the inputs.] Legislative and Regulatory Implications
Please detail any legislative
implications and whether the RIA
Vote Analyst Comment
[Please use this space to insert the QA statement if applicable. See page 21 of the guidance for information on QA - contact
the RIA team if you have any questions.]
What strategic trade-offs would be
Funding this all-of-Government Programme from LINZ baselines will require
required to fund this initiative from
significant reprioritisation of existing activities. This could be achieved
through a reduction of existing programmes such as biosecurity programmes,
deferring maintenance on Crown owned buildings held by LINZ, a reduction in
hydrographic surveys, or slowing down tenure review activities.
This would result in reducing investment in LINZ priorities.
Provide an option for scaling, phasing
Refer discussion of options above.
and/or deferring this initiative.
Describe the implications on service
The Open Government Information and Data Programme will continue to
delivery if this funding is not approved
operate through 30 June 2017, but at minimal levels. From that time,
agencies and the wider state sector would no longer have access to any
centralised open data resource. While some agencies may seek to in-house
this service, we anticipate that this would be very limited.
Vote Analyst Comment
[Please provide a brief comment on the quality of the agency’s Four-year Plan and discussion of strategic trade-offs. Do you
agree with the agency’s assessment of the impact of not approving this initiative?] Delivery and Risk Management
What are the risks to delivering this
There is no market of buyers and sellers for Government data. This means
initiative? How will these risks be
there is no data “supply price” to automatically encourage Government
agency supply to meet user demand (where the marginal cost of supply
equals the marginal benefit to users). Instead, non-market (administrative)
mechanisms, such as Government statements of commitment, performance
agreements and monitoring, are being used to incentivise Government
agencies to meet user demand. The inherent weakness with this approach is
that it can take a number of adjustments to the administrative levers before
data demand and supply are appropriately aligned.
In the event the work programme outlined above is not opening up data at a
rate and in ways most valued by users, officials will give priority to looking at
options to mitigate remaining barriers.
Further, at this point officials do not support funding beyond that being sought,
instead preferring a more gradual increase in activity so that there is less risk
of “overshooting” the target (to where the additional costs of the programme
start to exceed the additional benefits).
Other risks identified by officials include the legal risk arising from the release
of more Government data, and the inevitability of frivolous and vexatious uses
to which some information might be put.
These are business as usual risks across the Government system that are
managed by accurate disclosures around the information released and robust
and efficient processes for managing public and stakeholder engagement. To
the extent there is more interaction between Government and the public
following data release, it is to be expected that over time the quality of that
engagement will increase, generating benefits for Government agencies and
What capability is required to deliver
Key capabilities required to deliver the initiative are:
this initiative? Does this capability exist
or will it need to be built?
Open data standards and techniques
Civic and industry engagement and collaborative working
Skills specific to the component initiatives (e.g. roundtables with
Some of these capabilities exist in the open data team now, although they fall
short of meeting the current high demand. The team was complemented for a
time by a secondee from the private sector, a practice that would continue
under this initiative. For some of the component initiatives that require a
specific skill set, tools and support to develop the required capability is
included in the service being purchased.
Overall, provided there is adequate funding, building and developing the
capability required off the existing base should not be a barrier to success of
Vote Analyst Comment
[Please rate this initiative red, amber or green
according to your assessment of risks associated with the delivery of this
initiative. Consider the size of the proposal relative to the agency’s activity, any cross agency impacts, and impacts to front-
line service delivery.]
Implementation and Evaluation
How will this initiative be managed and
The initiative would be managed under LINZ management processes.
When will this initiative be evaluated
There will be two evaluations supported by real-time monitoring. One will be
and how will performance be assessed?
at two years and will focus on the impact of the Programme on open data
performance. The second, at four years, will provide a further look at open
data performance as well as the outcomes of that improved performance.
Open data performance and outcomes evaluation (two years)
To do this data will be collected on an ongoing basis on the resources being
applied through the Programme to different organisations. Through this, LINZ
will be able to classify agencies into different cohorts in terms of level of
support received. This will be compared against changes in both quantitative
and qualitative measures of open data performance (such as rate of quality
datasets uploaded and implementation of best practice) within those
agencies. By comparing otherwise similar organisations that have received
different levels of support, we should be able to achieve casual inference as
to the impact of the Open Government Information and Data Programme.
Open data performance and outcomes evaluation (four years)
This evaluation will provide an update of the same method applied in the first
evaluation. This will be supplemented by in-depth case studies looking at
impacts from open data. These case studies will seek to do three things:
1 Provide a description of the benefits as a result of the Programme
(quantified where possible)
2 Assess the importance of open data to the outcomes (e.g. new
products, research, policy changes)
3 Identify whether the availability of the required open data can be
reasonably attributed to the work of the Open Government
Information and Data Programme (drawing on the results of the first
part of the evaluation).
Through these case studies, evaluators will be able to make meaningful
conclusions on the Programme’s impact on outcomes, value for money, and
on where the benefits accrue. It will also allow us to inform the future focus of
the Programme, including whether it should continue.
Real-time performance monitoring
This formal evaluation will be complemented and enabled by the real-time
performance monitoring that is included in the initiative. The tools developed
will support LINZ to make regular observations as to the performance of
agencies, and where support appears to be having impact and the nature of
those impacts. Additionally, the data collection systems will provide most of
the information required for the quantitative aspects of the formal evaluations.
Vote Analyst Comment